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Spain-Andorra social security: bilateral agreement

When a Spanish person or resident in Spain asks to establish their residence in a different country, one of the most general questions that may arise is whether Spanish social security contributions and benefits are also valid for the Andorran woman. That is, if retirement, health coverage and other types of insurance are consumable in both countries when changing residence or if previous contributions have been in vain. Or even more briefly: if both systems are compatible.

In this article we have proposed to address this issue, based on the agreement that the Spanish Social Security maintains with the Andorran one. At the time we already talked about double taxation agreements, but this time we will talk about the Social Security Agreement between Spain and Andorra.

This agreement and the Administrative Agreement for its application were signed on November 9, 2001 and have been in force since January 1, 2003 and have been published in the Official State Gazette of December 4, 2002, and it applies to people who work or have worked in one or both countries and to their relatives and survivors.

Social security between Spain and Andorra: benefits included

According to the Spanish Social Security itself and, taking the general information of this agreement, it has application on the following benefits:

  • Spain's social security benefits:
    • Health care for maternity, common or professional illness and accident whether or not at work. 
    • Financial benefits for temporary disability derived from common illness and non-occupational accident. 
    • Economic maternity benefits. 
    • Permanent disability, retirement, death and survival benefits. 
    • Economic benefits derived from work accident and occupational disease.
  • Andorra social security benefits:
    • Health care in cases of maternity, common illness and work accident. 
    • Financial benefits for temporary disability derived from common illness and work accident. 
    • Economic maternity benefits. 
    • Invalidity, retirement, death, widowhood and orphan benefits.

Can I retire in Andorra with a Spanish benefit?

Therefore, yes, a person can spend their retirement in Andorra through a benefit granted by Spain or the Spanish state. However, they should know that the difficult thing if they are already retired is to obtain residency, since obtaining active residence on their own or someone else implies work (and therefore cannot receive the benefit) and obtaining passive or non-profit residence it is quite expensive. Can get more information here.

A different case is that of a person who is still active and who has doubts about whether he will be able, once the time comes, to exercise his right to benefit from Spain because he has contributed part of his working life there. In that case and by virtue of this agreement, the person in question will have the right to a benefit from both the Spanish and Andorran states, and each one will be responsible for their corresponding part.

Agreement operation

Andorra Spain Social Security Agreement, operation

To understand the functionality of this agreement, we can summarize it in these following four important points:

  1. To acquire the contributory benefits provided in the Agreement, you can add the insurance periods completed in Spain and Andorraas long as they don't overlap with each other. 
  2. Contributory economic benefits may be received regardless of whether the interested party resides or is in Spain or Andorra
  3. Each country will pay its own benefits directly to the beneficiary. However, the first payments of the pension may be discounted the amounts owed in debt with the social security of the other country, if any.
  4. People who meet the requirements of the laws of both countries to be entitled to a contributory pension, they will be able to receive this from each one of them.

In addition, it is necessary to know that:

  • The periods of insurance credited before the effective date of the Convention, in either country, are taken into accounta for the determination of the right to benefits recognized under it.
  • The application of the Convention allows the examination of right to contingency benefits that would have taken place prior to the date of its entry into force, although the payment of the same will not be made in any case for periods prior to its validity (they would be new periods).

So the clear and simple answer is that yes, you can reside in Andorra taking advantage of Spanish quotes and vice versa, adjusting with the legislation and with the mentioned requirements. Which means, in turn, that you can to retire in Andorra after having been listed in Spain, receiving payments from both jurisdictions according to their acquired rights.

However, despite this, We recommend discussing the issue with professionals in the sector, experts at the international level and from the countries mentioned to be able to optimize each case while always being under strict compliance with the relevant legislation. Let us now go on to describe each of the types of benefits and assistance.

Healthcare

Referring to the provisions of the agreement, health care is recognized by the country in which the worker is insured or for the pensioner by the country that pays the pension, in accordance with its national legislation. For this, the insurance periods of both countries are totaled, when necessary, provided they do not overlap.

Thus, in general and normal terms, the country that recognizes it provides services, but also they can receive it when they move or reside in the other country in the following cases:

  • Workers insured in one country as well as their families who move to the other country temporarily and who immediately require health care. 
  • Workers insured in one country and sent to work in another for a period not exceeding two years or 1 year in the case of self-employed workers, as well as their next of kin. 
  • Relatives of an insured worker in one country residing in the territory of the other country. 
  • Pensioners from one country and their relatives who are or reside in the territory of the other country. During the temporary stay they are entitled to immediate need benefits. 
  • Sick workers who have been authorized to move to the other country.  
  • Workers residing in one country and working in the other country may receive healthcare in either country.

Health benefits are served in the country where the beneficiary is located, and as established in the health legislation and in the Public Health Services of that country, during the time authorized by the Institution of the country where the worker is affiliated or who pays the pension and charged to said Institution.

Permanent disability, retirement and death and survival

According to the agreement, each country must separately examine the application for benefits as follows:

  • It will be checked if the interested party is entitled to the benefit taking into account only their own insurance periods without adding those of the other country. 
  • Also, the benefit will be calculated adding to the own insurance periods those accredited in the other country (theoretical pension). In this case, the amount of the benefit will not be in full, but according to the proportion existing between the periods of insurance completed in the country that grants it and the sum of the periods in Spain and Andorra (pro rata pension).
  • There is a exception for the cases in which the total duration of the insurance periods accredited in one of the two countries is less than one year and that by themselves do not entitle to a pension in that country. They will be assumed by the other country as their own, but without applying the pro rata clause temporis.

Finally, if the credited insurance periods in the two countries are less than one year, the general rule of totalization and pro rata will apply. The benefits calculated as indicated in the previous sections will be compared and each country will recognize and pay the benefit that is most favorable to the interested party.

For the recognition and calculation of the pension, different factors and specific conditions are taken into account according to the specific case, and that is why we insist on recommending professional treatment to determine and resolve the particular situation of each one. We will not deal with this topic in this article, as it is long and tedious, quite technical and relatively little relevant to have a general knowledge.

Other benefits

Work accident and occupational disease: The right to benefits derived from an accident at work or occupational disease shall be determined by the country whose legislation was applicable to the worker on the date the accident occurred or the disease was contracted.

Maternity and temporary disability: The economic benefits derived from said contingencies are recognized by the country in which the beneficiary is insured, taking into account, if necessary, the insurance periods of the other country, provided they do not overlap.

Application for benefits

The agreement states that requests of benefits should go to Icompetent institution of the country where the interested party resides, and will be effective in both countries if the exercise of a professional activity in the other country is alleged in the application or is deduced from the documentation submitted. Furthermore, if the interested party or its causes reside in a third country, they must send their request to the Institution of the country (Spain or Andorra) under whose legislation the latter was insured for the last time. 

In Spain they must be done in the Social Security Information and Care Center closest to your home (National Institute of Social Security), with the exception of workers included in the Special Scheme for Sea Workers which are made in Provincial Directorates of the Social Institute of the Navy.

On the other hand, in Andorra they must be done in the Caixa Andorrana de Seguretat Social.

Displaced workers

Finally, it remains to address the issue in the case of posted workers. As a general rule, posted workers are subject to the Social Security legislation of the country in whose territory they are exercising their labor activity. Now, if it is a temporary transfer, they can maintain the Spanish Social Security legislation in the terms and requirements indicated below, applicable to workers of any nationality:

  • For workers employed by others, who carry out their activity in a Spanish company and who are displaced by it to temporarily carry out their activity in Andorra, the issuance of the corresponding certificate of displacement.
  • Own-account workers Those who move to carry out their activity temporarily in Andorra must request before the Provincial Directorate of the General Treasury of Social Security or its Administrations, the issuance of the corresponding displacement certificate.
  • For workers employed by others, the maximum duration of the initial posting is two years. For own-account workers, the maximum period of initial posting is one year

If employed or self-employed workers must extend their stay in that country beyond the period regulated for the initial posting, the employer or self-employed worker must apply for the extension of the maintenance of Spanish Social Security legislation. This extension must be requested three months before the end of the authorized period and before the General Sub-Directorate for Affiliation, Quotation and Management of the RED System of the General Treasury of Social Security, always in accordance with the agreement.

In addition to this, there are some exceptions for certain specific cases that, however, exceeds the objective of this article and therefore we will not address it either.

In conclusion

In short, the bilateral social security agreement between Spain and Andorra makes the compatibility of both systems possible, both in terms of contributions and benefits and social insurance, so that one can reside in one of the two countries without losing all the rights acquired in the other, including retirement. However, there is strict legislation and quite extensive that must be complied with, and for which each case must be treated in a concrete way, even more so when the objective is to optimize the rights and amounts charged.

That is why we recommend, despite everything, do it hand in hand with professionals dedicated to this that can guarantee the best application for your case. In Global Supply We are experts specialized in the establishment of people and businesses in the Principality of Andorra, and we will be able to solve your case in an adapted way and offer you all kinds of legal, tax and accounting services. Can contact us and tell us your case by clicking here, and you can also read much of the most important services we offer here. Thank you very much for reading us.

17 thoughts on “Seguridad social España-Andorra: convenio bilateral”

  1. Bonjour,
    Nous souhaiterions, avec mon mari, nous expatrier to Andorra d'ici 1-2 ans. Nous aimerions connaitre le systeme d'assurance maladie ainsi que l'accord avec l'Espagne.
    Merci pour votre detour.

    Salutations,
    MT Ferriol

    Reply
  2. Can I be retired in Spain and at the same time work and quote in Andorra?
    That is, being retired in Spain and delaying retirement in Andorra.

    Reply
    • Hi Jaume, thanks for commenting. Obviously no, that doesn't make sense. If you are in Spain, you are in Spain without further ado. If you refer to whether, by receiving a pension from the Spanish Social Security and obtaining passive residence in Andorra, you can continue to receive the pension, then yes, of course. What he can't do is work either, obviously, because he's retired.

      Reply
      • I also wanted to know if the contribution period in Spain serves to complement the contribution period in Andorra to exceed the minimum 5 years required by the CASS?

        Reply
  3. I live in Spain and I receive a retirement pension. I am going to live in Andorra. What procedures / forms do I have to do with the SS to continue receiving my pension?

    Reply
    • Hello Ana, thank you very much for commenting.

      Well, we would have to study your case in greater detail to see what documentation and procedures have to be carried out.

      Contact us if you want us to advise you on this.

      Reply
  4. I have 3 years left to retire and I am going to work these last years in Andorra.
    At 65 years of age, I will be able to request my retirement in Spain, even if I continue to live in Andorra.
    It affects me to work the last years in Andorra to calculate my pension.

    Regards.
    Juan

    Reply
    • Hi Juan, thanks for commenting.

      Well, although it depends on several factors and should be analyzed in greater depth, in principle it should count. However, you must stop working and therefore return to Spain (since you will not have a residence permit in Andorra).

      Reply
  5. I have worked in Andorra for eighteen years, I have been in Spain since 2006, I have 9 years left to retire in Spain with 67 years, do I have to wait to retire in Spain to request retirement in Andorra?

    Reply
    • Hello Maria Jose, thank you very much for commenting.

      Although I do not know anything about your case, the minimum retirement age in Andorra is 65 years with a minimum contribution of 15 years. Thus, you could retire in both countries. If you retire while residing in Andorra, you can do so at 65 and if you retire in Spain at 67. Of course, each state would pay you the benefit corresponding to the contribution you have made.

      Reply
  6. Good afternoon, I have contributed for 20 years in Spain and now I have moved to Andorra to work for someone else and to live. I am 44 years old.
    When I retire (presumably in Andorra), can I also access a retirement pension from the Spanish state? or having spent the last few years prior to my retirement not trading in Spain, do I lose my rights...?
    Thank you

    Reply
    • Hi Naomi, thanks for commenting.

      In principle, you are effectively entitled to receive a retirement benefit from the Spanish state corresponding to the 20 years of contributions.

      A cordial greeting.

      Reply
  7. Hello good, I am 39 years old and I have absolute permanent disability in Spain. I would like to reside in Andorra to improve my quality of life and that of my daughter. What type of residence do I belong to? Or what would be the necessary expenses? Thank you

    Reply
    • Hello José Manuel, thank you very much for commenting.

      Well, given your case, passive residence may be possible, although I also doubt it a lot. I'm afraid that, regretting it, your case is between complicated and impossible...

      Reply
  8. Good afternoon,

    I have worked both in Spain and in Andorra for many years basing my residence, even with simultaneous jobs over time. My main residence has been in Andorra, not in Spain. I have retired in both countries and receive benefits in both countries. I am currently living in Spain and receiving health care in Andorra and in a Spanish mutual insurance company, but not for social security. Is there any problem to receive health benefits in Spain after registering here? Thanks in advance

    Reply
    • Hi Joan, thank you very much for commenting.

      I have not understood your comment very well, but in general health services with social security coverage are provided where the beneficiary is a resident. If you are a resident in Spain, in principle you should be covered by the Spanish social security and have your health services there.

      Reply

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Spain-Andorra social security: bilateral agreement

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Andorra Insiders is an information platform about Andorra managed by Abast Global, an Andorran professional consultancy firm for legal, tax and accounting services specializing in the establishment of people and businesses in the Principality of Andorra. More information here.

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