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¿Andorra a quién pertenece? ¿España o Francia?

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One of the questions that many people ask is what is Andorra, if it is a country or not and if it belongs to someone or some other country, así como en caso afirmativo a qué país pertenece, dónde está o dónde queda, etc. Por eso en este artículo nos hemos propuesto contestar esta cuestión desmenuzándola en pequeñas cuestiones base. Así pues, empezamos.

Where is Andorra?

The territory of Andorra is in Europe, located at the neck of the Iberian Peninsula, right in the heart of the Cordillera de los Pyrenees between France and Spain, colindando con ambos países con los cuales comparte fronteras y una carretera que atraviesa el país de nordeste a sud. Concretamente desde Tolouse y los Pirineos catalanes franceses al sur de Francia hasta Lleida, en el norte de Cataluña, al lado del Parque Natural Cadí-Moixeró. Andorra queda también quite close to Barcelona.

¿Andorra es un país?

Yes, Andorra is a country, y no es Catalunya. El territorio de Andorra está gobernado mediante un parliamentary co-principal, cuya representación queda dividida en los llamados copríncipes de Andorra, que ejercen de jefes de estado. Estos son the bishop of Urgel and the president of France, y de manera similar a España, reinan pero no gobiernan, y sus funciones se reducen básicamente a las de representatividad en las relaciones exteriores del país. El bisbado de Urgel es una diócesis de la iglesia católica, subordinada a la archidiócesis de Tarragona. Por lo tanto Andorra no es de España y tampoco es parte de ese país.

That is why it is such a confessional state and where religion is so unfounded. Therefore, the Principality of Andorra constitutes a independent state, which forms a legal and democratic jurisdiction based on the 1993 Constitution, Magna Carta of the country. The head of the Government is the President of the Government and he is the one who proposes the laws to the General Council of Andorra.

The origin of Andorra

As we told in our article on the history of the Principality of Andorra, the origin of the independent country dates back to 788 AD when Charlemagne, after invading and consolidating the territory, granted his protection to Andorra and declared it a sovereign people, leaving administrative rights such as tithes in charge of the bishops of Urgel.

After multiple conflicts and feudal agreements in medieval times, the territory became a co-estate between the Bishop of Urgel and the Count of Foix who, when he acquired the title of King of Navarre and France, there were nobility and title transfers. the lordship acquires the rank of co-principal, being also the titles united in such a way that successive French heads of state are also co-princes of Andorra next to the bishop of Urgel.

Is Andorra in the European Union?

When someone wonders if Andorra belongs to the European Union, they must think that the country has only recently opened itself abroad as an opaque and isolationist tax haven, as we said in our article on the transformation of Andorra. At that time it left the tax havens lists of the EU and the OECD and made numerous agreements with international organizations and independent European countries.

So that, no, Andorra is not part of the European UnionSince, according to them, "the EU institutions are currently not adapted to the accession of these small countries". But nevertheless, Since the 90's he has been this co-principle approaching positions and reaching agreements constantly:

  • In the year 1991 comes into force on customs agreement between the European Economic Community and the Principality of Andorra, forming a Customs Union of goods, and Andorra is considered a member of the EU for manufacturing trade, but not agriculture. However, there are still customs controls due to Andorra's tax appeal, which encourages the smuggling of certain products and other conflicts.
  • Andorra adopts the euro, first due to its proximity to Spain and France and, after starting negotiations in 2003, finally in 2011 the Monetary Agreement between the European Union and the Principality of Andorra, going the euro to be the official currency of the country and being able to mint their own coins from 2014. The consideration of this agreement is that they also have the obligation to comply with the monetary and financial regulations issued by the European Union.
  • There is finally an agreement signed in 2003 between France, Spain and Andorra. on the movement and residence in Andorra of citizens of third StatesIn such a way that although Andorra has remained outside the Schengen Agreement, as travelers to Andorra have to go through the Schengen Area, and Andorra does not issue any visa, the entry requirements are in practice the same as in the area Schengen.
  • Also in 2003, a savings tax agreement was signed.
  • In 2004 a cooperation agreement with the EU covering the environment, communications, information, culture, transport, regional and cross-border cooperation and social issues.
  • Progress continues in the approach of positions, As the pact signed by the government for the Association Agreement with the EU, which will be "an instrument available to Andorran operators to diversify the country's economy."

Andorra continues on its course of opening up internationally and attracting financial capital through legal security. For example, recently Andorra became the nth member country. IMF 190

¿Andorra utiliza el euro como moneda?

Yes, Andorra utiliza y acuña monedas de euro a pesar de no estar en la UE. El Principado de Andorra nunca ha tenido una moneda oficial propia en toda su historia. Hasta la implantación en 2002 del euro como moneda en Europa y su circulación en España y Francia Andorra se limitaba a utilizar el franco francés y la peseta española. Entonces Andorra adoptó también como moneda el euro pero sin reconocimiento jurídico. Se decidió así por su proximidad a España y Francia y la cantidad de transacciones comerciales que mantenía con ellos. No obstante, no estaba autorizada a acuñar sus propias monedas de euro.

En 2004, Andorra empezó a negociar con la Unión Europea un tratado con el que poder usar el euro de manera oficial, a pesar de no ser un país miembro de la Unión. Tras obtener el visto bueno del Consejo de la Unión Europea, la firma llegó en 2011 y entró en vigor en 2012. El euro pasó a ser la moneda oficial de Andorra y, además, pudo acuñar sus propias monedas de euro a partir de2015, ya que en diciembre de 2014 tuvo lugar la primera emisión de monedas de euro en Andorra. 

Is Spanish spoken in Andorra?

Yes, Spanish is spoken in Andorra. Although the official language is Catalan, in Andorra the Spanish, French and Portuguese due to its huge immigrant past and present. In addition, of the three above, the most widely used by far is Spanish. In general, the languages spoken correspond to their inhabitants: approximately half are Andorran, a third Spanish, 15% Portuguese and 7% French.

In addition, they exist in Andorra three educational models: Andorran, Spanish and French, in such a way that there is no major problem in educational terms in this sense.

Are taxes paid in Andorra?

Yes, of course, taxes are paid in Andorra, although much less compared to its neighboring countries. Although it is no longer a tax haven, the Andorran tax framework is still very attractive, and that is why many people and capitals settle in the country to work or invest. Can read more about the advantageous Andorran taxation here, and also a comparison between the taxes of Andorra and Spain here.

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